Spot Market Risk Management
Many risk management tasks may be automated when managing own and client positions. Most of the tasks relate to calculation and control of margin indicators and to limit management. The QORT platform processes information in an online mode and allows combining risk management and accounting of own and clients’ operations in one product. Spot Market Risk Management module is responsible for risk management on stock and FX markets.
Risk management of client positions
Main tasks in client operations
- Calculation and projection of margin indicators.
- Order generation for rolling over positions.
- Order generation for forced position closure.
- Limit management.
- Keeping registry of high-risk clients.
- Calculation and projection of margin indicators
The module calculates such margin indicators as volume of collateral, debt, own funds, evaluation of short and long positions, margin level, level of funds adequacy, initial margin and other indicators in accordance with the margin lending scheme chosen for the client. The indicators are calculated online.
For every trade the module allows to record automatically indications of margin and unsecured trades, the state of the main indicators before and after operations.
A special calculator allows calculating future margin indicators for planned trades or operations for funds depositing or withdrawal. It also helps in solving the opposite task – calculating operation parameters to adjust margin indicators to determined figures. The parameters are calculated with commissions that will be written off for previously executed operations.
It is possible to recalculate margin indicators at the end of trading day and after changes in operations, including projected changes in broker’s own discounts.
- Two calculation schemes for margin indicators
- A ‘Discount’ scheme, which is based on margin lending requirements in accordance with CBRF Directive # 3234-U dated 18 April 2014. A broker specifies discounts independently for each instrument. Then, initial and minimum portfolio margins are calculated with discounts and compared to current portfolio value. The Module allows automated importing of
- A ‘leverage’ scheme, wherein each client is provided with a margin credit in a defined ratio to the client's own funds.
The Module allows automating full cycle of risk management for client operations on stock and FX markets when clients are provided with margin lending.
- Rolling over long and short positions
The module allows rolling over long and short positions to the next day with the help of the following exchange operations:
- REPO trades,
- REPO trades with CCP,
- NDM trades with CCP,
- SWAP trades (to roll over the currency positions).
Upon user’s request, the system generates orders for rolling over positions and uploads them to QUIK. It is possible to generate addressed REPO orders for rolling over short positions from a file. Position roll over can be fulfilled by registration of REPO trades on OTC-market in QORT via user terminal. If a broker uses NCC discounts the Module allows their use in evaluation of orders for rolling over positions. Moreover, the list of collateral securities is imported from QUIK.
Analysis of funds shortage is available when rolling over positions. The table shows assets for which roll over orders were not fully generated.
- Sending margin calls
The system allows monitoring the portfolio state and sending notifications if a portfolio value decreases/increases in comparison with the monitored value. Notifications are automatically generated and sent by e-mail.
If portfolio value goes lower than the minimum margin, the system automatically sends margin requirements (margin call) to clients by e-mail or via QUIK notifications. The system of notification templates makes it possible to adjust notification texts.
- Forced position closure
The module automatically generates orders for forced position closure updating their parameters online. A risk manager decides on forced position closure. The Module allows forwarding orders for forced position closure in a certain sequence or depending on position number or volume. The module allows setting various rules for forced margin position closure for a particular account or a group of accounts:
- closure of all short positions,
- closure of positions till a specified level of funds adequacy is reached,
- closure of positions to the level of initial margin increased by a specified value.
- Limits in QUIK
The system allows generating, downloading and adjusting limits before trading session for securities and cash in the QUIK trading system. It also allows setting ‘leverage’ volume for margin lending. Further corrections including all trades and OTC operations may be made as needed or online.
The Module generates data for registers of margin and unsecured trades and automates keeping registries of high-risk clients, stores copies and keeps a directory of sent notifications.
Risk management of own positions
For own position risk management the Module allows users to work with various internal limit types. Internal limits are set and monitored in QORT without uploading them to front-office systems.
Main types of internal limits
- Limit on size of open position in instruments of a specified issuer, Limit on size of open position by a group of instruments.
- Limit on open position for counterparty with separate control of counterparty’s liabilities, own liabilities to counterparty or their balance.
- Limit on REPO position opened against a counterparty.
- Limit on uncalculated FX liabilities.
- Limit on banknote operations.
In addition, it is possible to set loss limits. This limit type may be set both for a group of assets and for any asset separately.
All limits described above are monitored in a post-trade mode. For limits on open position size in issuer instruments and on open position for counterparty, pre-trade control is also available when OTC trades are registered in QORT.
The Module allows rolling over own positions similarly to rolling over client positions.